On a possible reconstruction of the face of Julius Caesar using a Leiden marble head

Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy

Abstract: Further discussion about the proposal of a 3D rendering of a Julius Caesar’s bust published on 22 June 2018 by the web site of the National Museum of Antiquities (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden) in Leiden. Actually, this Museum has two Caesar’s heads. One, in poor condition, had been used for the 3D reconstruction; the other is here considered for a different reconstruction of Caesar’s face. This other Leiden head is very interesting, because it could be considered the proper link between the Tusculum and the Arles portraitures of Caesar.




Binnenkort verschijnen nieuwe edities van Jezus was Caesar, waarin opgenomen nieuw onderzoeksmateriaal en eerdere peer review- artikelen van Francesco Carotta en Arne Eickenberg.



Il Cesare incognito: Sulla postura del ritratto tuscolano di Giulio Cesare. + Excursus: Aurora sul denario di L. Aemilius Buca coniato dopo la morte di Cesare. FRANCESCO CAROTTA – Di prossima pubblicazione in Quaderni Ticinesi – Numismatica e Antichità Classiche, 2016 XLV.




foto images

Op uitnodiging van de Mennistische Broederkring Mid Fryslân is er in de Doopsgezinde Kerk te Grou op donderdag 14 april 2016 een vertoning geweest van de documentaire Het Evangelie van Caesar. De opkomst stemde tot blijdschap, de getoonde interesse ook. 



‘Carotta found that even people and places have the same function in both stories.’

Insightful observations into the ancient scriptures and historical documents might make one to speculate over the idea that Jesus’ life is congruent to the life of Caesar. The Italian-German linguist and philosopher, Francesco Carotta, after investigating more than fifteen years came out with interesting similarities. According to his book, Jesus was Caesar, both Literature to Religion and Religion to Literature: Changing Colours of the Bible 3 Julius Caesar and Jesus began their careers in northern countries: Caesar in Gaul, Jesus in Galilee; both cross a fatal river: the Rubicon and the Jordan; both then enter cities: Corfinium and Cafarnaum; both have affinity to ordinary people and both are accused of making themselves kings: King of Romans and King of Jews (47-50). Also, Carotta found that even people and places have the same function in both stories. To mention a few, Pompey is the political godfather of Caesar and competes with him in the same way John the Baptist does with Jesus. Decimus Junius Brutus betrays Caesar as Judas betrays Jesus. Octavian is the young Caesar, his posthumously adopted son. John is adopted by Jesus as he is dying on the cross. Cleopatra had a special relationship with Caesar as did Mary Magdalene with Jesus. The recently unearthed, The Gospel of Judas, an ancient text lost for 1700 years, disclosed the truth that Christ’s betrayer was his truest disciple. Presumably Christ like Caesar engineered his own crucifixion. The New Testament says a treacherous Judas sold out Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane. But The Gospel of Judas says that Jesus asked Judas to betray him, thereby freeing his soul from his body. Cockburn points out that as per the translation of Professor Rudolph Kasser, the opening line of the first page reads, “The secret account of the revelation that Jesus spoke in conversation with Judas Iscariot….” Jesus tells Judas “You will exceed all of them. For you will sacrifice the man that clothes me.” Despite Christ’s warning ‘You will be cursed,’ Judas fulfilled his master’s wish. In plain English or Coptic, Judas is going to kill Jesus – and thus do him a favor. Perhaps Coretta might be true when he said that Jesus is a true historical figure, he lived as Gaius Julius Caesar and resurrected as Divus Julius. From Vigil in 70 BC to Ovid.

Department of English, DNR College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India 

Department of English, Al Qassim University, Buraidah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

IJLL-literature to religion.pdf



Ik heb de documentaire betreffende de zienswijze van Carotta inmiddels bekeken, en de eerste gedachte die bij me opkomt is dat zijn betoog voornamelijk steunt op linguïstische argumenten, en hij geen enkele aandacht schenkt aan het christelijke geloof dat door Paulus wordt verkondigd en moeilijk in verbinding gebracht kan worden met de Caesarcultus. En dat is tenslotte het oudste christendom waar wij weet van hebben. Ik zie in eerste instantie dus niet hoe Paulus in zijn zienswijze een plaats kan krijgen. Aan de andere kant lijkt het mij duidelijk dat het voor mythicisten geen vergezochte gedachte is dat de latere eerste evangelieschrijver, Marcus, bij het verhistoriseren van deze al bestaande paulinische christuscultus zijn inspiratie ook uit de Caesarcultus heeft kunnen halen, of laatstgenoemde cultus zelfs als model heeft kunnen gebruiken voor zijn verhaal.

Albert Vollbehr

freethinker. nl



Sunday, November 8, 2015

The Eerie Similarities Between Julius Caesar and Jesus Christ

Over two-thousand years, some events happened. Tales of the events were passed down orally by common people, in societies where over 80% of the population was illiterate. The tales were modified over the almost 100 years that they were passed down verbally. Local fathers changed certain details to meet the local geography, to make the story more relatable to their wide-eyed kids.

It is well-known that the Epic of Gilgamesh of the Babylonians matches almost exactly the Story of Noah’s Flood from Genesis. Few credible scholars deny there was quite a bit of borrowing from one to the other.

This theory below, by Francesco Carotta, is more controversial. But read the facts and determine whether you see the similarities.

Once upon a time, a great man lived whose initials were J.C. He was born quite poor, and lived among the common people, even though he was descended from the great, foundational King Romulus/King David. His aunt/his mother was named Maria. Some claimed for him a miraculous birth/a birth by Caesarian section. When he was still young, he was almost killed by the tyrant Sulla/Herod.

His deeds gained him significant fame during the early part of his public career, when he was operating in the province just to the north, called Gallia/Galilee. Everywhere he went, he was accompanied by his 12 faithful Lictors/disciples. He spoke in proverbs often, for example, “I came, I saw, I conquered/I came, I saw, I washed.” He was close to a promiscuous woman named Cleopatra/Magdalene and a righteous, powerful man named Nicodemus of Bithynia/Nicodemus of Bethany.

Eventually, his fate forced him to make a momentous decision and cross the Rubicon/Jordan river. On the way, he was tested at and performed miraculous deeds at a city called Corfinium/Cafarnaum. Then, he was operational in the capital, Rome/Jerusalem.

There had been a very similar man who he was close with, who had a similar following and career. Eventually though, Pompey/John the Baptist was beheaded by an Egyptian, and the head presented to him.

He was kind to the Caecilii (the blind), the Claudii (the lame), and the Metellii (the disfigured). He was so righteous that the common people started callimg him by the Greek term, “chrestos.” After operating in the capital for a while, his popularity was noticed by a jealous governing body, the Senate/the Sanhedrin. He was accused of having ambitions on becoming King.

He was betrayed by someone very close to him named Junius/Judas. The crowd is forced to choose between Brutus/Barabbas and him. A powerful man named Pontifex Lepidus/Pontius Pilate washes his hands of the matter. He is killed on March 15, wearing a Crown of Grass/Crown of Thorns. Right before being killed, he is stabbed between the ribs by someone named Cassius Longinus! His body was displayed to the people on a crucifix/he was crucified.

His followers were devastated, as predictions from all around the world had said that a Savior and the King of the World would be born around this time. So, he ascended into heaven and became a God. He took his place in the pantheon as the son of God – son of Jupiter/son of Jehovah.


Is Jesus the historically transmitted figure of Julius Caesar?

Sunday, Nov 22, 2015, 1:00 PM

Location details are available to members only.

6 Members Went

Francesco Carotta, the linguist and philosopher, uncovered historical evidences, which indicate the story of Jesus is based on the history of Julius Caesar. The symbols of Christ are from the Cult of Caesar: the titles (God, Son of God, the Almighty, the Merciful, the Savior, the Redeemer, etc); the date of death (15th); the ‘cross’; the resurrecti…

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Très sommairement: La première question que l’on a posée à l’auteur, a été étrangement celle de savoir si ce livre soit chrétien ou antichrétien. Si ce livre est chrétien, alors en ce sens qu’il prouve l’existence historique de Jésus … mais comme Divus Julius, le Jules César déifié. Par ailleurs il confirme à sa façon ce que la tradition a toujours dit, à savoir que l’évangile de Marc a été écrit en latin à Rome, douze ans après le départ du Seigneur … mais en identifiant le Protomarc avec les Historiae d’Asinius Pollion, le légat de César, qui écrivit en premier l’histoire des guerres civiles. Ce livre, qui vient de sortir en novembre 1999 en Allemagne aux éditions Goldmann du groupe Bertelsmann porte le titre War Jesus Caesar? (Jésus était-il César?) et en sous-titre 2000 Jahre Anbetung einer Kopie (2000 ans d’adoration d’une copie). En fait c’est le compte rendu d’une recherche, issue de la constatation qu’il y a des parallèles frappants dans l’iconographie de César et de Jésus, à commencer par le motif de la pietà (p. 18 et 23). Puisque ces parallèles se retrouvent aussi dans la liturgie (Ethelbert Stauffer dans Jerusalem und Rom im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, Bern 1957 p. 21, avait constaté que la liturgie de Pâques ne suivait pas le récit évangélique mais le rituel des funerailles de Jules César) l’hypothèse de travail qui s’imposa fut donc que les évangélistes aient éventuellement puisé dans la vie de César, plus âgé que Jésus de 100 ans exacts. Cela a été facile à vérifier, puisque si nous n’avons plus la source première, Asinius Pollion, nous avons tout de même ceux qui l’ont utilisée, Appien, Plutarque, Suéton, Cassius Dion, Velleius Paterculus, etc. outre à César lui-même, Cicéron etc. Il a été aisé de voir que la biographie de César du Rubicon à sa mort et apothéose recouvre exactement le récit de Marc du Jourdain à la mort et résurrection de Jésus, que les deux récits mis en parallèle se correspondent à cette différence près, que les noms ont été adaptés et relocalisés (ainsi à la Gaule correspond la Galilée, à Corfinium Capharnaum, Julia, la veuve de Marius, est devenue Marie, Junius (Brutus) Judas, le senat satan, etc.), tandis que les ennemis vaincus se sont métamorphosés en malades guéris (ainsi les obsessi, les assiégés, ont été prix pour des possédés du démon, les Caecilii littéralement pour des aveugles, les Claudii pour des boîteux, les Metelli (comme si mutili) pour des manchots, etc.). Un long travail de reconstruction du puzzle, mais pas si difficile en fait, puisqu’objectif et vérifiable. La synoptique César/Marc le prouve. La question qui se posa en conclusion, à savoir comment ces transpositions se soient-elles faites, fut alors simple à répondre: La biographie du Divus Julius, le texte sacré utilisé dans la liturgie du nouveau dieu dans tous les temples de l’empire romain, et même au delà de ses frontières chez les rois associés et amis du peuple romain, par exemple chez Herodes, à l’usage en premier lieu des vétérans déduits dans les innombrables colonies, était à l’origine en latin. Avec le temps, au cours des générations, les colons établis en orient, qui étaient d’ailleurs en majorité gaulois, perdirent progressivement le latin, qui ne survit que comme langue de commandement. Ainsi surgit la nécessité d’écrire en marge ou au verso des feuilles de papyrus sur lesquelles les codes étaient écrits, un deuxième texte, traduit progressivement en grec et enrichi par des commentaires à l’usage de l’homilie. Ce texte maintes fois recopié a donné lieu à des bevues d’autant plus importantes qu’on finit par traduire en grec même les noms propres (c’est ainsi que les Claudii ont été pris pour des boîteux, les Caecilii pour des aveugles, etc.) ou à les lire comme si s’était du grec (Iunius > Iunas > Iudas) ou même de l’aramaique (Antonius lu à l’envers comme Simona), etc. Avec le retournement qui se produit un siècle plus tard, avec les Flaviens, à commencer par Vespasien, la statue du Divus Iulius à Rome «se retourna toute seule vers l’orient» (ad orientem sponte conversam): Ce fut le début de la «conversion» du Divus Julius dans le messie attendu par les juifs vaincus et soumis par Véspasien. Josephe, l’insurgé juif qui se rendit à Vespasien et qui prit le nom de celui qui fut dès lors son protecteur, Flavius, fut le maître de cette conversion: Il est le véritable apôtre Paul de l’histoire (Flauius > Saulus > Paulus). Probablement sous son égide, certainement dans sa foulée, on enrichissa finalement le texte évangélique des citations de la bible judaïque, qui en particulier chez Matthieu vinrent à substituer les citations classiques et à donner l’apparance d’une histoire juive. Ainsi fut judaïsée et biblifiée une histoire toute romaine. La publication a été appuyée par Madame le Professeur Erika Simon de Würzburg, archéologue de réputation internationale, qui a écrit la postfation, ainsi que par d’autres universitaires très connus de Tübingen et de Freiburg, qui à titres divers tenaient à ce que la thèse soit publiée. L’éditeur choisi est celui qui garantissait un prix populaire (20 mark = ca. 10 Euro) et une ample divulgation (paper back distribué dans le canal livre de poche). Entre temps ont paru les premiers articles sur la presse écrite et des transmissions de radio et de télévision. On trouvera des informations actualisées sur ce même site internet (voir plus loin ou sous «Auftritte»). Le premier article paru dans la presse, sur la Märkische Allgemeine du 12 octobre 1999 est intéressant puisque parallèlement il maltraite la nouvelle édition du livre de l’éditeur du magazine Der Spiegel, Rudolf Augstein (il lui reproche, en suivant en cela notre analyse, «daß er lediglich eine olle Kamelle der kritischen Exegese hervorgewürgt hat», c’est à dire «d’avoir régurgité les vieilleries resucées de l’exégèse critique», tandis qu’il titule ce livre de «steile These», de «thèse verticale» et de «anregendste Jesus-Veröffentlichung der Saison», de «publication sur Jésus la plus suggestive de la saison»).


     6. Jesus Caesar?

Francesco-Carotta argumentou que a história tradicional de Jesus Cristo é realmente toda errada e fruto da má interpretação da vida de Júlio César. E que o cristianismo primitivo foi realmente derivado do culto a Julius de Roma. Estamos todos familiarizados com Júlio César como um general e político. Mas ele também era conhecido por sua clemência e misericórdia, pela qual ele morreu. Mesmo a coroa que ele usava se assemelhava a coroa de pontos. Carotta também relata a uma série de semelhanças entre suas vidas, bem como coincidências-linguísticas, tais como César em Gália e Jesus na Galiléia, César foi esfaqueado por Cassius (Longinus), Jesus foi esfaqueado por Longinus. Carotta também traça paralelos entre as pessoas na vida de César e Jesus e sugere que elas eram, na verdade, a mesma coisa: Pompeu/João Batista como padrinho político, Brutus/Judas como o traidor, Cleópatra/Maria Madalena como “amiga colorida”, e assim por diante. Carotta afirma que algumas das frases mais famosas de César foram copiadas para uso nos Evangelhos, mas tiveram suas traduções distorcidas. Não seria a primeira vez, não é mesmo? Veni vidi vici (“Vim, vi e venci”) tornou-se o Evangelho para “Eu vim, eu lavei e eu vi” sobre a cura do cego devido a um erro de tradução do grego (“Eu lavei”) em vez de enikisa (“Eu ganhei”). Da mesma forma, as vitórias militares de César são mal interpretadas e retratadas como verdadeiros milagres de Jesus.
De acordo com esta interpretação, os Evangelhos são supostamente pouco mais do que propaganda pós-guerra projetada para acalmar a população, um verniz judaico sobre uma mescla de ideias pagãs e filosofia estoica com a vida de Jesus em uma releitura alegórico da campanha de Titus Flavius para esmagar a rebelião judaica.

[Antigo papiro pode ser indicação de que Jesus era casado]




Tormod Tobiassen

“Perhaps there is comfort in Francesco Carotta’s diagnosis: ‘Many people around the world are not interested whether the historical Jesus existed; they are only interested in his teachings.”  Tormod Tobiassen, Hoogleraar Theologie aan de universiteit van Bergen.



jesus mythicis

Minas Papageorgiou

One of the most fundamental axioms of Christianity is the faith in the historical existence of Jesus, in his miracles, his martyrdom on the cross and his resurrection as described in the New Testament. But is there any historical evidence for all the above? Is this a true story or another myth? These exact questions are raised by Mythicism, a movement that since the Enlightenment advocates that many old gods, including Jesus, are not real persons. Also, mythicists detect archetypal similarities between a large number of pre-Christian deities and texts that lead to fascinating conclusions.

The early mythicists started to investigate the problem of the historicity of Jesus back in the late eighteenth century. Since then additional evidence has been reported by several academics, historians, theologians, and independent researchers that shed more light on the mystery of Jesus’ life. This book brings for the first time together the views of various mythicists and other experts creating a very interesting mosaic of views. Minas Papageorgiou has selectively gathered here nineteen interviews by prominent academics and researchers who were all asked to comment upon the question: Did Jesus really exist?

The interviewees are: Dr Robert Price (theologian), Dr Richard Carrier (historian), Dr Maria Dzielska (historian), Dr Gerd Ludemann (theologian), Dr Gunnar Samuelsson (theologian), Dr Lena Einhorn (biologist and history researcher), Dr Payam Nabarz (writer and recreationist of the Mithraic Temple), Raphael Lataster (academic and researcher), Earl Doherty (historian), D.M Murdock/Acharya S (writer and scholar of comparative religion and mythology), Kenneth Humphreys (writer and researcher), Joseph Atwill (writer and researcher), Neil Godfrey (coordinator of the mythicist blog Vridar), Fritz Heede (filmmaker), Francesco Carotta (linguist and researcher), Daniel Unterbrink (writer and researcher), Ioannis Mpousios (writer and organiser of the “Gardens of Adonis” celebrations), Christos Morfos (writer and researcher), and Harita Meenee (philologist and writer).

about the editor
Minas Papageorgiou is a freelance journalist (member of the Journalists’ Union of the Athens Daily Newspapers (ESIEA)) and Managing Director in the publishing group Pigi (Pigi, iWrite and Daidaleos publications). During 2010-2014 he was editor-in-chief in the weekly magazine Fainomena circulating with the Greek newsparer Eleftheros Tipos. He holds a BA degree in Statistics from the University of the Aegean and a degree in Journalism from the Workshop of Professional Journalism (Ergastiri Epaggelmatikis Dimosiografias). He is a founding member of the Hellenic Society of Metaphysics (, the leading website on philosophical, historical and esoteric matters in Greece and a producer of the radio show Stargate (Astriki Pili) ( His areas of interest include the pursuit of Civic Virtue, Mythicism and the timeless struggle for the authentic Greek identity. He is the author of three books.

book contents
Preface by Stefanos Paipetis

a) Thoughts and questions
b) Brief presentation of the contents

Chapter 1
What is Mythicism?
a) The movement of Mythicism
b) The proponents of Mythicism

Chapter 2
Contesting the historical Jesus
a) The rise and spread of Christianity
b) Mythicist responses on Jesus testimonies
c) Finding the historical Nazareth
d) The Messiah before Jesus
e) The creation of the Ideal Hero
f) The modern “martyrs” of Mythicism
Interview with Gerd Lüdemann: The Bruno Bauer of the twentieth century

Chapter 3
Mythicism today
a) Interview with Richard Carrier: Methodology, analysis and documentation of the mythicist thesis
b) Interview with Neil Godfrey: Mythicism today
c) Films and documentaries directly or indirectly related to Mythicism
Interview with Fritz Heede: The documentary Caesar’s Messiah
d) Interview with Raphael Lataster: The new generation of the mythicist movement

Chapter 4
Mythicism in Greece
The chronicle of Mythicism in Greece
Interview with Christos Morfos: Nikos Vergidis’ contribution and the lack of sources in Greece

Chapter 5
Twelve interviews on Mythicism
Robert Price: An academic mythicist
Earl Doherty: The Q Document and the formation of Christianity
Kenneth Humphreys: Shaking down the myths of Christianity
D. M. Murdock / Acharya S: Jesus versus Buddha, Krishna, and Horus
Lena Eirhorn: Jesus versus Paul
Payam Nabarz: Jesus versus Mithras
Harita Meenee: Jesus versus Dionysus
Joseph Atwill: Jesus versus Titus Flavius
Maria Dzielska: Jesus versus Apollonius of Tyana
Ioannis Mpousios: Jesus versus Adonis
Francesco Carotta: Jesus versus Julius Caesar
Daniel Unterbrink: Jesus versus Judas of Galilee

Chapter 6
How Jesus became an historical person
a) Holy relics associated with Jesus
b) When Christians changed Time
c) The many faces of Jesus
Jesus simulacra – social and psychological implications by George Ioannidis
d) Jesus in films: The Christian myth in moving pictures  

Epilogue – Conclusions
Appendix 1 Interview with Gunnar Samuelsson: Crucifixion as a punishment in early Christian years
bibliography – sources



Emile Mourey

                             – DUITSLAND –


Postmoderne Bibeldidaktik im Hochschulbereich – Kompetenzziele


  3.3 Desmond Bell

Nicht so, als sei es erst gestern gewesen – Geschichtlichkeit in biblischen Texten wahrnehmen (p. 167)


Njemačko-talijanski lingvist Francesco Carotta je desetljećima ispitivao jezične postavke u priči o Isusu i Juliju Cezaru, on je našao cijele pasuse koji su preneseni iz biografije o božanskom Cezaru u Novi Zavjet. Uzimajući u obzir kako je moderna evanđelja uspostavio rimski car Konstantin I. na prvom crkvenom koncilu u Niceji 325. godine nove ere, tada Biblija dobiva sasvim novi predznak.

Ljubica Šaran


Joachim Bullinger 

‘Nullum magnum ingenium sine mixtura dementiae fuit. Nein, ich bin außerordentlich beeindruckt und wehre das nur ein wenig ab … noch. Zugleich ahne und fühle ich nämlich, daß hier ein bislang verdeckter Quell von Wahrheit aufgedeckt werden könnte…’




Could Jesus Christ be the deified Julius Caesar? (self.DebateReligion)
Toegevoegd op 19 hours ago * door antisthenesandtoes
I asked myself this question a couple weeks ago, noting the similarities in time, historical status, and yes, their initials (not of their personal names, i.e. Yeshua ben Yosef and Gaius Julius Caesar, resp., but of the names by which they each have been known for the past 2000 years). So I Googled my question and this book came up: Turns out this author had the same idea about 30 years ago, spent the next 20 years researching it (being a native Italian, he’s a lot closer to the source material than I am as a lowly single-language-speaking American), then wrote this book in 2005, when it was largely ignored by….well, everyone. The idea just seems too crazy, right? Julius Caesar, a God-King missing his cult, and Christianity, a cult missing its God (i.e. no historical evidence for the existence of Jesus). But somehow….it fits. What do you think?


Aap drone

Aap verjaagt drone met tak

Zoals de apen van Burgerzoo onlangs met een tak een drone verjoegen uit hun territorium, zo bang zijn universiteiten niet zelden voor nieuwe inzichten. In die zin vertrouwt de wetenschap zichzelf niet. Ook al worden nieuwe theorieën door vakdeskundigen onderschreven en worden ze gepubliceerd in (peer reviewed) wetenschappelijke tijdschriften, zoals bij Francesco Carotta, dan nog worstelt de universiteit met nieuwe inzichten. Wat zegt de Universiteit van Groningen van zichzelf:

“Over de universiteit

Gedreven door onderzoek en innovatie. Geworteld in dé kennisstad van Noord-Nederland. Met meer dan 30.000 studenten uit alle delen van de wereld is de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen een internationaal georiënteerde universiteit. Al meer dan 400 jaar staat kwaliteit centraal.”

En wat wat is de praktijk? Zie hier:                                       


Volkskrant 16 april 2015


In Frankrijk heeft de theorie van Francesco Carotta ook vaste voet aan de wal gekregen. ENQUETE & DEBAT heeft een fragment van de documentaire The Gospel of Caesar (Youtube) in het Frans vertaald:



                                                                 Antonio Piñero

Prof. dr. Antonio Piñero is een respectabele wetenschapper. Hij is specialist op het terrein van vroeg-christelijke teksten. Hij gaf Francesco Carotta de gelegenheid te spreken op een congres over het bestaan van Jezus Christus. In de documentaire The Gospel of Caesar (Youtube) komt deze geleerde ook voor, in debat met Carotta. Ook nam Piñero een wetenschappelijke artikel van Carotta op in de bundel die werd gepubliceerd naar aanleiding van het congres. Het artikel vindt u hier: 




Piñero was geen voorstander van het werk van Carotta, kan niet denken in het paradigma van Francesco Carotta. Het zij zo. Inmiddels maakt hij zo’n draai dat hij zichzelf weer tegenkomt. Hij ontkent wetenschappelijk bewijs en negeert bronnenonderzoek om afstand te nemen van Carotta c.s.:

Piñero takes the easy way out, when he maintains that Asinius Pollio’s Historiae are lost, and therefore cannot be compared with the Gospels—which undermines the hypothesis and doesn’t allow it to be verified.

It has been proven that the Historiae of Asinius Pollio were used by Plutarch and Appian; this has been known about Appian since 1874; cf. i.a. Paul J.H. Bailleu (1874), Quomodo Appianus in bellorum civilium libris II-V usus sit Asinii Pollionis historiis, Göttingen; Fröhlich (1892), De rebus inde a Caesare occiso usque ad senatum Liberalibus habitué gestis, Berlin, p. 2.

This fact has never been questioned, but consistently reconfirmed and expanded to include Plutarch; cf. i.a. E. Gabba (1956), Appiano e la storia delle guerre civili, Florence, as well as his introduction to Appiani bellorum civilium liber primus (Florence 1958).

Plutarch and Appian’s works have been preserved, so there is the possibility of comparison.

Piñero must know this, because Asinius Pollio was noted as a source of the Gospel of Mark in numerous places in the German version of Jesus was Caesar [n.b.: War Jesus Caesar?, Munich 1999], e.g. on p. 73 note 187, p. 127, p. 128–129, 221 n. 472, p. 222, p. 224, p. 241, p. 260, p. 353, p. 354, p. 355, p. 356, p. 357, p. 360, p. 361, p. 368. Cf. the PDF here.

Voor de hele verhandeling, zie hier

      – NEDERLAND –


In het schuilkerkje van Poppenwier werd op zondag 29 maart 2015 een filmvertoning gehouden van de documentaire Het evangelie van Caesar. Sinds jaren was de kerk op zondagmiddag weer vol. Het toegstroomde publiek was onder de indruk van de film en de nieuwe kijk op het Christendom van taalkundige Francesco Carotta.



17. März 2015
Francesco Carotta, Kirchzarten

031 Caesars Beisetzung –das historische Ostern

Am 17. März 44 v. Chr. fand – drei Tage nach den fatalen Iden des März – Caesars Beisetzung statt.

Darüber schrieb ein deutscher Theologe:«[…] diese Feier ist eines der wesentlichsten Ereignisse der neutestamentlichen Zeitgeschichte. Klageritualien für leidende und sterbende Götter hat es im antiken Orient seit jeher gegeben. Hier aber sind jene Passionsgedanken verknüpft mit dem gewalt- samen Tod eines Menschen von Fleisch und Blut, und dieser Mensch ist der kühnste Politiker, den die Antike hervorgebracht hat. Hier wird das politische Evangelium von der Clementia Caesaris zur Passionsklage, diese Passionsklage aber wird zur Anklage und zur Gerichts- botschaft. Nicht genug, hier sind – fünfundsiebzig Jahre vor dem Tode Jesu – gewisse Motive vorweggenommen, die später eine große Geschichte haben in der Karfreitagsliturgie der Römischen Messe».

(Ethelbert Stauffer, Jerusalem und Rom im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, Bern 1957, S. 20 ff.)

Anhand der antiken Quellen und durch Vergleich mit er- haltenen Münzen und marmornen Rundbildern ist eine Rekonstruktion der wesentlichen Requisiten dieser epochalen Passionsfeier möglich.

Referent: Francesco Carottas Buchveröffentlichung War Jesus Caesar? von 1999 ist vergriffen, kann aber als pdf-Datei frei her- untergeladen werden auf: Ein zweiter Band War Jesus Caesar? – Artikel und Vorträge erschien 2012.

Zeit: Dienstag 19–21 Uhr Teilnahme: 10 €





José Manuel Barreda Arias

Apuntes Sobre JesúS Y El Cristianismo: ¿Existió JesúS? ¿Qué Sabemos

Cesar apuntes

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